Pedro Molina

La crise, l'environnement et le réchauffement climatique

CANBERRA – La Grande récession de 2008 a touché les coins les plus reculés de la planète. Ici en Australie on la qualifie de crise financière mondiale. Kevin Rudd, Premier ministre au moment où elle a frappé, a mis en place l'un des meilleurs plans de relance économique keynésiens. Il a réalisé qu'il fallait réagir précocement, avec de l'argent qui serait dépensé rapidement, tout en sachant que la crise risquait de durer. Aussi la première partie de ce plan consistait-elle en subventions d'exploitation, suivies par des investissements plus longs à mettre en place.

Son plan a bien fonctionné : en Australie la récession a été la plus courte et la moins grave de tous les pays développés. Mais paradoxalement l'attention s'est portée sur le fait qu'une partie des sommes consacrées aux investissements n'a pas été dépensée aussi bien qu'il aurait fallu et sur le déficit budgétaire dû à la crise et aux mesures gouvernementales.

Certes, il faut s'assurer que l'argent est employé à bon escient, mais les êtres humains et les institutions qu'ils créent sont faillibles, et le contrôle de l'utilisation de l'argent a un coût. Pour le dire dans le jargon des économistes, en terme de rentabilité les coûts marginaux associés à une dotation financière (pour réunir les informations sur les bénéfices relatifs de différents projets et contrôler les investissements) ne doivent pas dépasser les bénéfices marginaux. Autrement dit, il faut éviter de gaspiller trop d'argent à prévenir le gaspillage.

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