Las grietas del G-20

MADRID – La crisis financiera mundial ha hecho de rápido y eficiente catalizador para el G-20. Las tres primeras cumbres de Jefes de Estado del G-20, celebradas en Washington, Londres y Pittsburgh, serán recordadas por haber hecho avanzar el multilateralismo y las medidas mundiales coordinadas, pero el G-20 sigue siendo en gran medida una labor en marcha... y que necesita mucha labor para tener éxito, como lo demostró su más reciente cumbre, celebrada en Toronto.

La cumbre del G-20 celebrada en Washington en 2008 fue la primera en la que los Jefes de Estado de los países miembros se reunieron desde la creación del grupo en 1997. El G-8 había dejado de ser un vehículo apropiado para la gobernación económica mundial, dada la necesidad de estabilizar los mercados financieros de todo el mundo. Para encontrar una respuesta a la crisis, había que escuchar las voces de países como, por ejemplo, China, la India y el Brasil. Con el empeoramiento de la crisis financiera, la cumbre de Londres, celebrada en 2009, acordó un estímulo fiscal y monetario sin precedentes y respaldó un marco regulador y supervisor más coherente a escala mundial. En vista del éxito del G-20, la cumbre de Pittsburgh lo reconoció como el foro principal para la cooperación económica mundial.

Ese reconocimiento infundió esperanzas sobre el G-20 y le concedió el prestigio que merecía: es el único foro en el que las potencias mundiales y los países en ascenso se sientan como iguales a la misma mesa. La premisa es clara: como la crisis reveló con mayor evidencia que nunca, la interdependencia de los países es ineludible. Ante los imperativos mundiales actuales, la única reacción posible debe ser mundial. No hay otra posible opción, pero la imprecisión del acuerdo alcanzado en la cumbre de Toronto, celebrada el pasado mes de junio, ha dejado mal sabor de boca a los dirigentes políticos.

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