Les fêlures du G20

MADRID – La crise financière mondiale a servi de catalyseur rapide et efficace pour le G20. On se souviendra des trois premiers sommets des chefs d’état du G20 à Washington, Londres et Pittsburgh, pour avoir fait avancer le multilatéralisme et une action globale coordonnée. Mais le G20 reste malgré tout une ouvre en chantier – loin d’être terminée, ainsi que l’a démontré le récent sommet de Toronto.

Le sommet du G20 à Washington en 2008 a été le premier, depuis sa création en 1997, à réunir les chefs d’état des pays membres. Le G8 n’était plus un vecteur approprié pour la gouvernance économique globale compte tenu de la nécessité de stabiliser les marchés financiers partout dans le monde. Les voix de pays comme la Chine, l’Inde et le Brésil devaient être entendues si une réponse coordonnée à la crise financière devait être trouvée. Avec l’aggravation de la crise financière, le sommet de Londres en 2009 s’était mis d’accord sur des mesures de relances budgétaire et monétaire sans précédent et a soutenu un cadre mondial de régulation et de surveillance plus solide et plus cohérent. Compte tenu du succès du G20, le sommet de Pittsburgh l’a reconnu comme le principal forum pour une coopération économique internationale.

Cette reconnaissance a ravivé les attentes concernant le G20 et lui a donné le prestige qu’il méritait : c’est le seul forum dans lequel les puissances mondiales et les pays émergeants sont sur un pied d’égalité autour de la table. La proposition est claire : comme la crise l’a clairement mis en évidence, l’interdépendance des pays est inévitable. Compte tenu des défis globaux d’aujourd’hui, la seule réponse possible doit être globale. Il n’y a pas d’autre alternative. Mais l’imprécision des accords auxquels le sommet de Toronto est parvenu en juin a laissé un goût amer dans la bouche des dirigeants politiques.

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