公司税难题

伯克利—如今,美国的法定公司税率是发达国家中最高的。尽管实行了多种税收减免和其他优惠措施,有效边际税率——即公司需要支付的税额占美国新投资的比重——仍然是世界最高之一。

在一个资本可以流动的世界中,公司税率兹事体大,怎样投资、在何处投资等商业决策越来越敏感于此税的国际差别。美国相对较高的税率无异于鼓励美国公司将投资、生产和招聘放到国外去进行,也阻止了外国公司前来美国,而这又意味着更慢的增长、更少的就业岗位、更小的生产率改进以及更低的真实工资。

在传统智慧看来,公司税负担首先是由资本所有者以低回报率的形式负担的。但是,随着资本流动性的增加,流动性相对较低的工人正在以更低工资、更少就业机会的形式承担更大的负担。这就是为什么世界各国都在削减公司税率。由此造成的“减税竞赛”反映了日益激烈的全球竞争,争夺资本和技术秘辛以支持本国就业和工资。

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