Margaret Scott

L’élargissement de l’Europe prendra-t-il fin avec l’adhésion de la Croatie ?

MAYNOOTH, IRLANDE – Malgré ses nombreux déboires, l’Union européenne demeure un important point de repère pour les États pauvres situés à l’extérieur de ses frontières. En effet, l’attraction gravitationnelle suscitée par le processus d’élargissement de l’UE a constitué le plus important facteur de la reconstruction de la vie économique, politique et civile dans les États de l’ouest des Balkans depuis la fin des guerres post-yougoslaves des années 1990.

L’adhésion de la Croatie à l’UE ce 1er juillet constitue un signe enthousiaste de bienvenue pour une région reléguée depuis un certain temps au second plan en raison d’une certaine « fatigue de l’élargissement, » ainsi que d’une introspection de l’UE engendrée par la crise. Les partisans de l’élargissement font également valoir l’accord signé par le Kosovo et la Serbie en avril comme une autre démarche de développement clé dans le déblocage de l’avenir européen des Balkans.

Après plus de dix années de guerre et de confrontation, la rupture décisive s’est jouée en décembre 2012, lorsque le Kosovo et la Serbie ont commencé à appliquer un accord relatif au contrôle des frontières. L’accord signé en avril dernier va encore plus loin, en établissant un arrangement de partage du pouvoir dans le nord du Kosovo, destiné à renforcer l’autonomie politique locale au travers d’une association des municipalités à majorité serbe, tout en instaurant de nouvelles ententes en matière de police et de justice.

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