Le prochain renouveau des relations franco-américaines

Avec l’invasion américaine de l’Irak en 2003, les relations franco-américaines ont touché le fond. Le gouvernement Bush s’est senti trahi par la tactique diplomatique française à l’ONU et, de son côté, le président français Jacques Chirac a confirmé sa méfiance dans l’unique superpuissance et son appel pour un monde multipolaire. Aujourd’hui, à la veille des élections présidentielles, il ressort des sondages que trois quarts des électeurs français estiment que la France devrait se tenir à distance des États‑Unis.

Malgré une longue histoire d’alliance remontant à la Révolution américaine et comptant deux guerres mondiales, la France a toujours eu une attitude quelque peu ambivalente à l’égard des Etats-Unis. La guerre en Irak n’est pas la première politique de sécurité controversée à affaiblir le pouvoir attractif de l’Amérique en France. Les sondages révélaient des réactions similaires après la Crise de Suez de 1956, la Guerre du Vietnam à la fin des années 60 et au début des années 70 et le déploiement de missiles à moyenne portée en Europe au début des années 80.

De plus, la France a depuis longtemps une fibre antiaméricaine. Certains conservateurs n’apprécient guère l’égalitarisme grossier de la culture américaine, tandis que d’autres à gauche considèrent la foi américaine en les marchés comme un symbole de l’exploitation capitaliste de la classe ouvrière. Après la Seconde Guerre mondiale, la France a interdit le Coca-Cola pour quelque temps, et plus récemment, l’agriculteur José Bové est devenu un héros populaire en détruisant un McDonald’s. Les Français sont pourtant toujours aussi nombreux à se rendre dans ces fast-foods et dans les cinémas passant des films américains, malgré les quotas imposés à leur importation.

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