Paul Lachine

Là où l’Europe fonctionne

STOCKHOLM – Au vu des manifestations d’immigrants sans emploi qui troublent un certain nombre de villes suédoises depuis déjà plusieurs semaines, de nombreux observateurs sont tentés de citer le modèle économique de la Suède comme un échec. Ces observateurs ont pourtant tort. Le modèle suédois / scandinave qui a émergé au cours des 20 dernières années a su tracer la seule orientation véritable vers une croissance durable que l’Europe ait connu depuis des décennies.

Les Européens ne doivent pas oublier que la perception des forces et des faiblesses est une donnée qui change rapidement. Dans les années 1980, les États scandinaves étaient synonyme de déficits budgétaires chroniques, de forte inflation, et de dévaluations à répétition. En 1999, le journal The Economist avait par ailleurs qualifié l’Allemagne de « grande malade de l’euro » – de monument de la paralysie européenne, caractérisée par une croissance lente et un chômage élevé.

Le spectre de la dévaluation a cependant aujourd’hui disparu des États de l’Europe du Nord. Les budgets sont aujourd’hui proches de l’équilibre, les dépenses publiques et les taux d’imposition plus faibles, et la croissance y a repris. La transformation du vieil État-providence européen a débuté dans le nord de l’Europe, et elle se propage à présent à la quasi-totalité du continent.

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