El dueto climático China-Estados Unidos

BEIJING –Sin una colaboración activa entre Estados Unidos y China, no sólo se reducirán las posibilidades de éxito en las negociaciones que se llevarán a cabo en Copenhague en diciembre próximo para lograr un tratado que suceda al Protocolo de Kyoto, sino que será improbable que se pueda arribar a cualquier remedio de importancia para enfrentar el aumento de las temperaturas globales. Sin embargo, en la actualidad las conversaciones entre Estados Unidos y China muestran dos escenarios contrastantes, uno esperanzador y el otro desalentador.

En el primer escenario, las delegaciones de altos funcionarios de ambos países se mantienen en punto muerto, sin querer moverse un centímetro de sus posiciones inflexibles. Más aún, continúa la negativa de los países desarrollados -particularmente Estados Unidos- a asumir la responsabilidad por sus emisiones históricas de gases de invernadero, representando un punto de conflicto importante, puesto que estas emisiones superan con mucho las del mundo en desarrollo.

En el segundo escenario, miles de millones de dólares de paquetes de estímulo “verde” dan impulso a una carrera global que lleva al desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías energéticas y su implementación. Estados Unidos se centra en seis áreas clave de tecnologías limpias: técnicas y materiales de construcción eficientes, tecnologías de baterías, tecnología solar, captura y almacenamiento de carbono (CCS), matrices inteligentes, y vehículos eléctricos (EV).

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