El caótico nacimiento de Sudán del Sur

MADRID - El Acuerdo General de Paz (CPA) que se alcanzó en 2005 entre el sur de Sudán, en su mayoría cristiano, y el norte musulmán del país, puso fin a una de las más sangrientas guerras civiles de los tiempos modernos. Con una duración de de 22 años, dejó más de dos millones de muertos. Ahora, la CPA se enfrenta a su prueba más importante: el referéndum sobre la independencia del Sur, previsto para el 9 de enero.

El que nazca o no un nuevo estado en una de las zonas más estratégicamente sensibles del mundo es de sumo interés para los vecinos de Sudán y otros países. Hay en juego asuntos vitales: la lucha por el petróleo, la fuerte presencia de China en Sudán, el deseo de Occidente de que un estado mayoritariamente cristiano quiebre en la región la contigüidad de los regímenes musulmanes - y la consiguiente amenaza del radicalismo islámico-, la distribución regional de las aguas del Nilo y la posibilidad de que la independencia para el Sur pueda conducir a la desmembración total de Sudán a lo largo de líneas étnicas y religiosas.

El hecho de que Omar al-Bashir, presidente de Sudán, no esté especialmente dispuesto a aceptar el plan de las Naciones Unidas para reforzar su fuerza de paz en el país antes del referéndum genera preocupación acerca de sus intenciones. Sin duda estaría feliz de retrasar la votación y, si se lleva a cabo, impugnar su legitimidad.

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