Изменяющееся лицо энергетической безопасности

На протяжении трех десятилетий богатый мир говорит о сдерживании своего пристрастия к импортированной нефти. Но несмотря на обеспокоенную риторику, проблема с поставками нефти ухудшилась, а энергетическая безопасность стала более сложной. Несмотря на повторные призывы политических деятелей к энергетической независимости, за последние 30 лет Соединенные Штаты, например, удвоили свою зависимость от импортированной нефти, которая в настоящее время составляет почти две трети их потребности в нефти.

Угрозы сократить поставки нефти с целью изменить внешнюю политику страны имеют долгую историю, особенно если это касается Ближнего Востока. Арабские члены Организации Стран - Экспортеров Нефти (ОПЕК) призвали к эмбарго во время войны 1967 г., но это не произвело большого эффекта, потому что США тогда были в значительной степени самодостаточными.

Но к тому времени, когда началась Война Йом Киппур (Война Судного Дня) в 1973 г., арабское эмбарго на нефть произвело больший эффект, вследствие растущего спроса Америки на импортированную нефть. Эмбарго повысило цены и способствовало периоду инфляции и застоя во всем мире. Оно также продемонстрировало, что нефть – это заменимый товар потребления. Хотя эмбарго было нацелено на США и Нидерланды, рыночные силы перетасовали нефть среди потребителей, и в долгосрочной перспективе все страны-потребители пострадали от недостатка поставок и одного и того же ценового шока. Эмбарго на нефть оказалось тупым инструментом, который причинил вред многим, помимо тех стран, для которых оно было предназначено.

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