Descongelamientos fatales

MOSCÚ – Durante la Guerra Fría, la Unión Soviética y, en una forma más leve, Estados Unidos impusieron límites externos a las actividades de los Estados y de las sociedades, lo que causó que los conflictos de larga data entre países más pequeños se “congelaran”.  Después del colapso de la Unión Soviética en la década de 1990, dichos conflictos comenzaron a “descongelarse”.

Debido a que las tensiones interétnicas ya se encontraban en escalada, Yugoslavia fue el primer país en disolverse y adentrarse en un conflicto. Poco después, estalló la guerra entre Armenia y Azerbaiyán, seguida por luchas armadas en Transnistria y Chechenia. Mientras que algunos conflictos se encararon – el Occidente finalmente intervino militarmente en la antigua Yugoslavia, y Rusia luchó en Chechenia por casi una década e impuso la paz en Transnistria – otros, como por ejemplo el conflicto entre Armenia y Azerbaiyán, simplemente fueron congelados nuevamente.

Afortunadamente, no todos los posibles conflictos entraron en erupción. La Unión Soviética no se despedazó por la violencia, como ocurrió con la mayoría de los otros imperios – un resultado para el cual parece que otra explicación que no sea la intervención divina o la pura buena suerte sería insuficiente. A pesar de los crecientes sentimientos nacionalistas y las sospechas mutuas, los países de Europa Central y del Este también se las arreglaron para evitar conflictos, gracias a su rápida aceptación en la OTAN y la Unión Europea.

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