L’abîme du Caucase

MOSCOU – Les autorités russes ont commencé à faire étalage des impressionnantes mesures de sécurité qui seront appliquées à l’occasion des Jeux olympiques d’hiver 2014 à Sotchi, une ville balnéaire bordant la Mer noire. Elles ont toutes les raisons de s’inquiéter – et pas seulement pour la sécurité des athlètes et des spectateurs.

Les violences dans le Nord Caucase prennent aujourd’hui moins la forme de conflits régionaux que celle d’une menace existentielle pour l’ensemble de la Fédération de Russie – une évolution qui reflète les erreurs, les échecs et les crimes des gouvernements qui se sont succédés depuis la fin de l’Union soviétique.

La Russie a livré deux guerres sanglantes aux séparatistes tchétchènes, de 1994 à 1996 et à nouveau de 1999 à 2006, soi-disant pour préserver l’intégrité territoriale de la Russie. Nous, Russes, avons livré ces guerres pour convaincre les Tchétchènes qu’eux aussi étaient des citoyens russes. Nous l’avons fait en détruisant leurs villes et villages par des tirs à l’arme lourde et des bombardements aériens, en enlevant et assassinant des civils, dont les corps mutilés révélaient souvent des actes de torture. Personne ne s’étonnera que les Tchétchènes, et d’autres populations du Caucase, ne se sentent pas très Russes.

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