César et ses réincarnations

BUENOS AIRES – Le 28 juin, un coup d’Etat destituait le président hondurien Manuel Zelaya, coupant court au référendum qu’il projetait pour permettre sa réélection. Le même jour, en Argentine, c’était la défaite de l’ancien chef d’Etat Nestor Kirchner aux élections législatives de mi-mandat, qui devaient, pour beaucoup, décider de son second mandat en 2011, ou de celui de son épouse Cristina, l’actuelle présidente de l’Argentine, qui a pris la suite de Nestor. Ces événements sont révélateurs l’un et l’autre d’un phénomène typique de l’espace hispano-américain: la tentation de conférer l'investiture à un nouveau César local.

Ce “césarisme” n’est pas nouveau. Il annonce plutôt le retour d’une tradition qui semblait avoir été reléguée dans les poubelles de l’histoire, et qui revient se venger.

L’historien et sociologue vénézuélien Laureano Vallenilla Lanz, dans son livre intitulé Césarisme démocratique , dont la première édition date de 1919, et qui a été amplement diffusée à travers le continent, affirmait être en quête pour son pays d’un système constitutionnel qui ne soit pas simplement formel, mais efficace.

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