Quelle communauté internationale ?

NEW YORK – Dès qu’un malheur se produit – l’Iran qui se rapproche de l’heure où elle sera dotée des armes nucléaires, la Corée du Nord tirant un autre missile, les morts de civils atteignant un triste record de la guerre civile syrienne, les satellites révélant un taux alarmant de fonte de la banquise arctique, certains responsables ou observateurs inviteront la communauté internationale à intervenir. Le seul problème étant que la « communauté internationale » tient plus du concept que de la réalité.

L’une des raisons découle de l’absence de véritable mécanisme pour rassembler « le monde ». L’Assemblée générale des Nations Unies s’en rapproche le plus, mais il ne faut pas s’attendre à grand-chose d’un organisme qui met sur le même pied les États-Unis ou la Chine avec, disons, les îles Fiji ou la Guinée-Bissau.

Il est vrai que ceux qui ont fondé l’ONU après la Deuxième Guerre mondiale ont créé le Conseil de sécurité comme lieu de rassemblement où les grandes puissances se réuniraient pour déterminer le sort du monde. Pourtant même cet objectif ne s’est pas déroulé comme prévu, en partie parce que le monde de 2013 a peu de ressemblance à celui de 1945. Comment expliquer autrement que la Grande-Bretagne et la France sont des membres permanents détenteurs de droit de veto, et non l’Allemagne, le Japon, ou l’Inde ?

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