Ce que les BRICS peuvent offrir au monde

CAMBRIDGE – Jim O’Neill de Goldman Sachs avait inventé en 2001 l’acronyme BRIC pour désigner les quatre plus importantes économies mondiales en développement – Brésil, Russie, Inde, et Chine. Plus d’une décennie plus tard, leur seul point commun est d’être les seules économies non membres de l’OCDE à être classées dans les 15 premières mondiales (en pouvoir d’achat).

Ces quatre pays ont des structures économiques très différentes : la Russie et le Brésil reposent sur leurs ressources naturelles, l’Inde, sur ses services, et la Chine, sur son secteur manufacturier. Le Brésil et l’Inde sont des démocraties tandis que la Chine et la Russie ne le sont vraiment pas. Et ainsi que l’écrit Joseph Nye, la Russie est une superpuissance en déclin, tandis que la Chine et les autres (dans une moindre mesure) sont en progression.

Pourtant, comme dans un rêve, les BRICS – les quatre pays d’origine rejoints désormais par l’Afrique du Sud – se sont créés leur propre forum avec des réunions régulières et des initiatives politiques. Leur effort le plus ambitieux à ce jour a été l’établissement d’une banque du développement.

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