ماذا يحتاج العالم من دول البريكس

كمبريدج ــ في عام 2001، صاغ جيم أونيل من بنك جولدمان ساكس مصطلح "بريك" لوصف أكبر أربع اقتصادات نامية على مستوى العالم ــ البرازيل، وروسيا، والهند، والصين. ولكن بعد مرور أكثر من عشر سنوات، يكاد يكون القاسم المشترك الأوحد بين هذه الدول الأربع هو أنها الاقتصادات الوحيدة المصنفة بين أكبر خمسة عشر اقتصاداً (بعد التعديل وفقاً للقوة  الشرائية) وهي ليست من دول منظمة التعاون الاقتصادي والتنمية.

فالدول الأربع لديها هياكل اقتصادية مختلفة تماما: تعتمد روسيا والبرازيل على السلع الأساسية، والهند على الخدمات، والصين على التصنيع. والبرازيل والهند من الدول الديمقراطية، في حين أن الصين وروسيا ليسا منها بالقطع. وكما كتب جوزيف ناي، فإن روسيا قوة عظمى في انحدار، أما الصين (بشكل أقل وضوحا) وبقية القوى الأخرى فهي في صعود.

رغم هذا، وفي حالة غريبة من الخيال الأقرب إلى الحياة الحقيقية، قامت مجموعة البريكس ــ الدول الأربع الأصلية، وجنوب أفريقيا التي انضمت إلى المجموعة الآن ــ بتشكيل تجمع خاص بها يجتمع بشكل منتظم ويطرح مبادرات سياسية خاصة. وكان الجهد الأكثر طموحاً لهذه المجموعة حتى يومنا هذا إنشاء بتك للتنمية.

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