Уроки регулирования от «Бритиш Петролиум»

КЕМБРИДЖ. Так как поврежденная нефтяная скважина компании «Бритиш Петролиум» продолжает выбрасывать миллионы галлонов нефти из недр земли на дно Мексиканского залива, то проблемой, которая требует срочного решения, является то, каким образом уменьшить последствия все нарастающей экологической катастрофы. Можно только надеяться, что распространение пятна будет остановлено и что самые наихудшие сценарии не материализуются.

Однако бедствие затрагивает более глубокую проблему, а именно, как современное общество справляется с регулированием сложных технологий. Все увеличивающаяся скорость внедрения технических новшеств, кажется, превысила способность правительственных регулирующих органов справляться с рисками, не говоря уже о том, чтобы предотвращать их.

Проведение параллелей между разливом нефти и нынешним финансовым кризисом слишком болезненно: обещание инноваций, небывалая сложность и отсутствие прозрачности (ученые подсчитали, что мы знаем только очень маленькую толику того, что происходит в глубинах океана). Богатые и политически могущественные лобби оказывают огромное давление даже на самые стойкие правительственные структуры. Президента США Барака Обаму поставило в затруднительное положение то, что он предложил – правда, под давлением республиканской оппозиции – значительно увеличить оффшорную добычу нефти как раз до того, как произошла катастрофа со скважиной «Бритиш Петролиум».

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