波士顿的教训

普林斯顿—美国成长了。公众对波士顿马拉松爆炸案和犯案者身份的反应表明,这个国家与因2001年9月11日恐怖袭击而受到心理创伤、偶尔歇斯底里的国家大不相同了。当然,两起袭击的程度大相径庭——2001年数千人被杀,国家标志也被摧毁,而波士顿的爆炸案致三人死,约260人伤。但是,此乃2001年后第一次在美国发生的重大袭击,此时与彼时的对比颇具说明性。

就拿爆炸发生几分钟内社会媒体的强烈反应来说吧。小报《纽约邮报》(New York Post)发布了一系列骇人听闻的消息,说12人被杀,一名沙特籍人士在一家波士顿医院“被看护”。老牌记者和专栏作家马上予以反驳,质疑《纽约邮报》的消息来源,认为它没有确认它正在报道的内容。明尼苏达公共电台(Minnesota Public Radio)的米勒(Kerri Miller)发推特说,她在1995年报道了俄克拉荷马城爆炸案,一开始该案被当做煤气爆炸案报道,随后又成为外国恐怖主义袭击案,而最后则是国内极端分子干的好事。

如此谨慎和克制的直接原因是美国人集体认识到,2001年袭击后大量无辜的美国穆斯林因为美国人的无知和激愤而受到了不公待遇。事实上,同样令人震惊的是,大量专家认为波士顿爆炸案是土生土长的美国案件,与俄克拉荷马城袭击或去年12月针对康涅狄格州纽顿一年级学生的大屠杀更相似,而不是和2001年恐怖袭击更相似。2013年的美国已不是2001年的美国,如今美国人愿意在寻找外部敌人之前先做内省。

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