自由主义的疆界

当谈到是否应该以及如何管制经济时,西方社会一贯倾向的是自由主义的理论。但是在谈到移民问题时,他们却没有太多自由主义的传统。其结果是,在欧洲和美国大部分有关移民问题的争论中占据主导的是反自由的声音,在这其中最强硬的声音来自那些承诺保护祖国文化的完整性以对抗臆想中异族人的堕落的政治家们。

排外是右派对于移民问题反自由的回应,而左派的多元文化主义代表的其实是同样的想法。许多多元文化理论家尽管主张对移民保持开放的态度,但是并不认为移民应该对他们新的家园也抱以开放的态度。对于他们来说,新来者生活在一个对他们的生活方式抱有敌意的环境中需要保持他们原有的文化做法,即便其中的一些做法比如包办婚姻、性别隔离、宗教灌输等与自由的原则相抵触。在许多多元文化者的道义观中,群体的生存远比个人的权利更重要。

维护对开放的承诺同时又能应对国家疆界的复杂问题的一种方式是认识到世界主义是一条双向道路。康德教导我们说,我们所感知的自己所身处的环境是由我们碰巧可能所身处的环境来决定的。

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