Las anteojeras de la Historia

Una visión deformada del presente es la peor manera de prepararse para las amenazas del futuro. Llamar ampquot;cuarta guerra mundialampquot; a la lucha contra el terrorismo internacional, como hace el principal neoconservador, Norman Podhoretz, en su nuevo libro, es un error en varios sentidos.

En primer lugar, ¿cuándo y dónde hubo la tercera guerra mundial? La Guerra Fría, precisamente porque nunca llegó a ser ampquot;calienteampquot;, nunca fue equivalente a la primera y segunda guerras mundiales. Naturalmente, la referencia a la ampquot;Guerra Fríaampquot; puede ir encaminada a crear una lógica de ampquot;nosotrosampquot; contra ampquot;ellosampquot;, pero eso no corresponde a la naturaleza de la amenaza planteada por el islam radical, dada la complejidad y las numerosas divisiones que existen dentro del mundo musulmán. De hecho, al militarizar nuestro pensamiento, nos incapacita para encontrar las respuestas adecuadas, que deben ser tan políticas como orientadas a la seguridad.

Como siempre, las palabras son importantes, porque se pueden convertir fácilmente en armas que se vuelven contra quienes las usan sin propiedad. Las analogías erróneas han conducido a los Estados Unidos al desastre en el Iraq, que nada tenía en común con la Alemania o el Japón de después de la segunda guerra mundial, el paralelismo al que recurrieron algunos en el Gobierno de Bush al sostener que se podía hacer germinar la democracia en antiguas dictaduras mediante la ocupación.

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