Les œillères de l’Histoire

Une vision faussée du présent est la pire des manières de se préparer aux défis de l’avenir. Décrire la lutte contre le terrorisme international comme “la Quatrième Guerre mondiale,” comme le fait l’éminent néo-conservateur américain Norman Podhoretz dans son nouveau livre, est une totale aberration.

Tout d’abord, où et quand la Troisième Guerre mondiale a-t-elle eu lieu ? La Guerre froide, justement parce qu’elle n’a jamais été “chaude,” n’a jamais été semblable à la Première ou à la Seconde. Naturellement, la référence à la “Guerre mondiale” a peut-être pour but de créer une logique de “eux” contre “nous,” mais cela ne correspond pas à la nature du défi que représente l’islam radical, étant donnés la complexité et les nombreuses divisions qui existent à l’intérieur du monde musulman. En fait, militariser notre façon de penser nous rend incapable de trouver les bonnes réponses, qui doivent être orientées tant vers la politique que vers la sécurité.

Comme toujours, les mots ont leur importance, car ils peuvent facilement se transformer en armes qui rebondissent sur ceux qui les utilisent à mauvais escient. De fausses analogies ont déjà mené l’Amérique au désastre en Irak, qui n’a rien en commun avec l’Allemagne ou le Japon d’après la Seconde Guerre mondiale – parallèle utilisé par certains membres de l’administration Bush pour avancer que la démocratie pouvait germer dans d’anciennes dictatures grâce à une occupation étrangère.

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