La cuestión más importante en el Sudán

TEL AVIV – La consecuencia más inmediata de la orden de detención del Presidente del Sudán, Omar Hassan al-Bashir, dictada por el Tribunal Penal Internacional el mes pasado, fue la expulsión de la mayoría de los organismos de ayuda del país, pero esa atención mundial centrada en la región de Darfur del Sudán, si bien está justificada, ha eclipsado una cuestión aún más decisiva: la de mantener la búsqueda de una paz más amplia en todo el Sudán. Lo más necesario ahora es crear un consenso internacional sobre una estrategia para la aplicación plena del Acuerdo General de Paz (AGP) de 2005 en el Sudán.

El AGP puso fin a la más larga guerra civil de África, que había dejado tras sí más de dos millones de muertos. En dicho acuerdo no sólo figuran los parámetros que deben propiciar la autodeterminación del Sudán meridional, sino que, además, se expone un proceso de democratización del propio Sudán. Al fin y al cabo, el carácter opresivo del régimen de Jartum es la raíz de muchos conflictos que han dividido el país.

Si el gobierno de Jartum persiste en socavar el proceso de reforma y desbaratar el referéndum de libre determinación prometido para el Sur en enero de 2011, un regreso a una guerra civil en toda escala, con consecuencias calamitosas para los pueblos del Sudán y de toda la región, es una posibilidad real.

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