Um Novo Banco de Desenvolvimento do Novo Mundo

NOVA IORQUE – Na conclusão da sua cimeira de Março em Durban, os líderes dos BRICS (Brasil, Rússia, Índia, China e África do Sul) anunciaram a sua intenção de criar um Novo Banco de Desenvolvimento destinado a “mobilizar recursos para projectos de infra-estruturas e de desenvolvimento sustentável nos BRICS e outras economias emergentes e países em vias de desenvolvimento.”

Não será demais sublinhar a importância desta decisão. Para começar, ela reflecte os enormes sucessos de desenvolvimento económico ocorridos nas últimas quatro décadas (o PIB agregado dos BRICS é agora maior que o dos países avançados, quando se fundaram as instituições de Bretton Woods) e o reequilíbrio do poder económico global que isso implica. De facto, a decisão demonstra a capacidade e o desejo de trabalhar em conjunto dos BRICS, para o seu próprio benefício e para o do mundo inteiro. Os mercados emergentes e os países em vias de desenvolvimento estão a tomar o futuro nas suas próprias mãos – numa altura em que os países ricos marcam passo, com os seus próprios problemas auto-infligidos.

Um novo banco de desenvolvimento é claramente necessário. Só as exigências infra-estruturais nas economias dos mercados emergentes e nos países de baixos rendimentos são enormes – 1.4 mil milhões de pessoas não possuem ainda acesso fiável a electricidade, 900 milhões carecem de acesso a água potável, e 2.6 mil milhões não têm acesso a saneamento adequado. Ao mesmo tempo, estima-se que 2 mil milhões de pessoas irão mudar-se para cidades durante o próximo quarto de século. E os legisladores devem garantir que os investimentos serão ambientalmente sustentáveis.

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