La nouvelle Banque de Développement d’un nouveau monde

NEW YORK – Au terme de leur sommet de Durban en mars, les dirigeants des BRICs (Brésil, Russie, Inde, Chine, et Afrique du Sud) ont annoncé leur intention de mettre en place une nouvelle Banque de Développement destinée à « mobiliser les ressources pour des projets d’infrastructures et de développement durable dans les BRICS, les autres économies émergeantes et les pays en développement. »

L’importance d’une telle décision ne saurait être sous-estimée. Pour commencer, elle reflète les énormes succès en matière de développement économique des quatre dernières décennies (le PIB total des BRICS est aujourd’hui supérieur à celui des pays avancés à la fondation des institutions de Bretton Woods) et le basculement du pouvoir économique global qu’elle implique. En effet, cette décision est la preuve de la capacité et de la volonté des BRIC de travailler ensemble, pour leur propre intérêt et pour celui du monde entier. Les marchés émergents et les pays en développement prennent leur avenir en main – à un moment où les pays riches se débattent dans leurs propres problèmes auto-infligés.  

Une nouvelle banque de développement est réellement nécessaire. Les seuls besoins en infrastructures des économies émergentes et des pays à faible revenu sont colossaux – 1,4 milliard d’êtres humains n’ont pas d’installation électrique fiable, 900 millions n’ont pas d’accès à l’eau potable et 2,6 milliards ne bénéficient pas de conditions sanitaires appropriées. Dans le même temps, on estime à deux milliards ceux qui s’installeront en milieu urbain au cours du prochain quart de siècle. Et les politiciens devront s’assurer que ces investissements soient durables en matière environnementale. 

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