Der Anfang vom Ende Guantánamos

Durch den „Krieg gegen den Terror“ wurden die Demokratien gezwungen, abzuwägen, bis zu welchem Grad sie es sich leisten können, die Rechte und Freiheiten ihrer Staatsbürger und der im jeweiligen Land lebenden Ausländer zu schützen. Am heftigsten war die Debatte in den Vereinigten Staaten, wo immer wieder zu hören war, dass die Verfassung kein „Suizidpakt“ sei und dass im Namen der nationalen Sicherheit außerordentliche Maßnahmen gerechtfertigt sein können. Manche dieser Maßnahmen – wie die unautorisierte Überprüfung von Kontoinformationen oder das Abhören von Telefongesprächen – gefährden die Freiheit aller. Andere Maßnahmen – die bekannteste darunter wohl die Inhaftierung von ungefähr 450 angeblichen muslimischen Kämpfern in Guantánamo Bay – betreffen Menschen, die unsere Feinde sein sollen.

Inmitten zunehmender Missbrauchsvorwürfe erkannte die Regierung unter Präsident George W. Bush vor einiger Zeit, dass sie das Gefangenenlager Guantánamo nicht ewig aufrecht erhalten kann. Andererseits wollte man die Erfahrungen aus dem Prozess gegen Zacharias Moussaoui kein zweites Mal machen. Bei diesem Verfahren wurde der mutmaßliche 20. Entführer des 11. September 2001 nach zahlreichen propagandistischen Berufungen der Anklage schließlich für schuldig befunden und zu einer lebenslangen Haftstrafe verurteilt. Die Bush-Administration schlug daher einen Mittelweg vor: Die Installation einer von Militärrichtern geleiteten Militärkommission, die dem Angeklagten weniger Rechte zugesteht und Berufungen vor zivilen Gerichten nicht zulässt.

In seinem vor Kurzem gefällten Urteil im Fall Hamdan gegen Rumsfeld sagte der Oberste Amerikanische Gerichtshof dazu „Nein“. Diese Entscheidung wird dauerhafte Auswirkungen auf die Verfassungsstrukturen in Amerika haben.

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