寺庙之争

<>发自曼谷——自1月以来,泰国和柬埔寨之间爆发的军事冲突已经造成了超过24人死亡,近百人受伤,数千人流离失所,但这一事件的主要动因却是两国的国内政治因素。这场根植于两国传统对立情绪和殖民时代遗毒的斗争正在侵害整个区域的利益,两方的敌对状态竟然恶化到连一个短期协议都需要第三方从中斡旋。而和平能否到来则主要取决于泰国的国内政治危机在未来几个月内如何收尾——此外柬埔寨又是否会插手这一进程。

冲突的核心是一座千年印度教古寺所在的4.6平方公里区域,寺院名为柏威夏寺,但两方的称谓略有不同(柬方称为“Phra Viharn”而泰方称为“Phra Viharn”)。柬埔寨坚称对这一区域拥有主权,因为依照1962年联合国国际法院的边界裁决,法官以9比3的票数认定了由法国勘测人员在1904至1907年间制作的柬埔寨地图,并将古寺区域划在柬埔寨境内,而泰国(在1939年前称为暹罗)事前也并未对此表示反对。在听证会上,柬埔寨请求国际法院对寺庙所处的区域做出裁决,但法官们却只是将裁决限定在柬埔寨原先要求的寺庙之上。

这张法国人测绘的地图随后成为了冲突的核心,因为它修改了两国间的自然地理分界。泰国拒不承认这份地图,因为在1904年制定的法国-暹罗协议将古寺附近的一条地理分水线定为两国边界。此外,当时法国人的地图勘探行动正是在暹罗割让一部分土地——如今柬埔寨西部的大部分地区——给法国的十年后展开的,而法国人正是当年统治整个印度支那半岛的殖民宗主。势单力薄的暹罗只能被迫与欧洲列强签订一系列不平等的协议以换取自身的独立。

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