Nová tvář centrálního bankovnictví

LONDÝN – V mnoha velkých centrálních bankách světa probíhá výměna stráží. Haruhiko Kuroda nastoupil do funkce guvernéra Japonské centrální banky (BOJ), kde ho čeká nesmírně obtížný úkol ukončit dvě desetiletí stagnace. Současný guvernér Bank of Canada Mark Carney, který se má v červenci ujmout role guvernéra Bank of England (BoE), už o sobě dává vědět v debatách o britské měnové politice. A blížící se lednový konec funkčního období Bena Bernankeho v roli šéfa Federálního rezervního systému už dnes vyvolává ve Spojených státech spekulace o jeho nástupci.

Z velkých světových ekonomik tedy změny na tomto postu nečekají jen eurozónu a Čínu. To však ještě neznamená, že jejich centrální banky jsou neměnné. Mario Draghi je prezidentem Evropské centrální banky sotva rok a guvernér Čínské lidové banky Čou Siao-čchuan byl téměř nahrazen, když v únoru dosáhl důchodového věku.

Před dvaceti lety by takový vývoj zajímal vesměs jen bankéře a podnikatele. Od vypuknutí globální finanční krize však potřeba oživit a udržet hospodářský růst v USA, Velké Británii a Japonsku – a vyhnout se finančnímu kolapsu v eurozóně – přinutila velké centrální banky, aby byly otevřenější a vedly agresivnější měnovou politiku zahrnující i nekonvenční opatření, jako je kvantitativní uvolňování (QE). V důsledku toho je dnes řada centrálních bankéřů všeobecně známými osobnostmi, a někteří mají dokonce bulvární přezdívku – například „Supermario“ Draghi.

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