Juicio a los Balcanes

La larga tragedia de Serbia parece tocar a su fin. A la muerte de Slobodan Milosevic ha seguido inmediatamente el referéndum de Montenegro sobre la independencia. También la independencia para Kosovo se va acercando cada vez más.

Las guerras de la sucesión yugoslava no sólo han sido un tormento para los pueblos de ese país desintegrado; además, han planteado muchas dudas sobre el ejercicio de la justicia internacional. ¿Fomentan los tribunales internacionales como el que Milosevic tuvo que afrontar antes de su muerte o aplazan una seria autorreflexión y reconciliación en unas sociedades deshechas? ¿Fortalecen o socavan la estabilidad política necesaria para reconstruir comunidades destrozadas y economías hundidas?

La evidencia de esas preguntas es mixta. La verdad es que la ejecutoria del Tribunal Internacional para la Antigua Yugoslavia (TIAY) encargado de juzgar crímenes de guerra y con sede en La Haya, puede resultar instructiva a la hora de juzgar la credibilidad de la estrategia consistente en utilizar esa clase de juicios como parte de las medidas para acabar con las guerras civiles y de otra índole. En 13 años, el TIAY, con 1.200 empleados, gastó unos 1.250 millones de dólares para condenar a sólo unas docenas de criminales de guerra. Además, pese a que miembros de otros grupos étnicos cometieron crímenes, en sus primeros años el TIAY procesó y enjuició a muchos más serbios que a miembros de los otros grupos, con lo que intensificó la impresión, incluso entre los oponentes al régimen de Milosevic, de que era un tribunal político y antiserbio.

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