Балканы под судом

Продолжающаяся длительное время трагедия Сербии, похоже, подходит к концу. Недавно, вслед за смертью Слободана Милошевича, в Черногории состоялся референдум по независимости. Независимость Косово также вскоре может стать реальностью.

Войны, которые велись при развале Югославии, не только стали испытанием для людей этой разобщённой страны; они также затронули вопросы огромной важности об эффективности международного правосудия. Способствуют или же мешают международные суды наподобие того, в котором рассматривалось дело Милошевича прежде, чем он умер, серьёзным размышлениям над собой и примирению пострадавших сообществ? Укрепляют ли они или же подрывают политическую стабильность, необходимую для восстановления разрушенных сообществ и подорванной экономики?

На эти вопросы нельзя ответить однозначно. Действительно, опыт Международного трибунала по Бывшей Югославии (МТБЮ), расположенного в Гааге, может быть полезен при определении эффективности стратегии применения подобных судебных процессов в качестве составной части усилий по устранению гражданских и иных войн. За 13 лет МТБЮ с 1 200 сотрудниками потратил около 1,25 миллиарда долларов на доказательство вины всего лишь нескольких десятков военных преступников. Более того, в то время как преступления совершались всеми этническими группами, в первые годы своего существования МТБЮ предъявил обвинение и преследовал в судебном порядке гораздо больше сербов, чем других, что заставило многих поверить, даже среди оппонентов режима Милошевича, что Трибунал был политическим и анти-сербским.

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