Balkánská zkouška

Zdá se, že dlouhá srbská tragédie se chýlí ke konci. Krátce po smrti Slobodana Miloševiče následovalo referendum o nezávislosti Černé Hory a blíží se také nezávislost pro Kosovo.

Války o nástupnictví po bývalé Jugoslávii nebyly jen zkouškou pro národy v této rozpadlé zemi; vyvolaly také obrovské otázky o uplatňování mezinárodní spravedlnosti. Podněcují mezinárodní tribunály, před jakým stál před svou smrtí Miloševič, vážnou sebereflexi a usmíření v rozvrácených společnostech, anebo je odsouvají? Posilují politickou stabilitu potřebnou k obnově zničených komunit a zdecimovaných ekonomik, anebo ji podkopávají?

Důkazy o těchto otázkách jsou smíšené. Při posuzování důvěryhodnosti podobných procesů v rámci úsilí o ukončení občanských i jiných válek může být poučná bilance Mezinárodního trestního tribunálu pro bývalou Jugoslávii (ICTY) se sídlem v Haagu. Za 13 let vynaložil ICTY s 1 200 zaměstnanci přibližně 1,25 miliardy dolarů na to, aby odsoudil pouhých pár desítek válečných zločinců. A ačkoliv se navíc zločinů dopouštěli příslušníci všech etnických skupin, ICTY v prvních letech obvinil a stíhal mnohem více Srbů než příslušníků jiných národností, což i mezi odpůrci Miloševičova režimu posílilo dojem, že tribunál je politický a protisrbský.

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