Margaret Scott

Final de partida en los Balcanes

ROMA – Veinte años después del desplome de Yugoslavia y del régimen comunista en Albania, la región de los Balcanes occidentales vuelve a estar ante un punto de inflexión. Eslovenia está en la Unión Europea, Croacia está muy próxima a la adhesión y todos los demás países de la región se han internado por la senda que conduce a la UE. Sin embargo, sigue existiendo un peligro de que esos positivos avances resulten socavados.

De hecho, aunque la integración de la UE ya está aportando democracia y estabilidad a los países de los Balcanes, se trata de una tarea inacabada y la de concluirla es una tarea a un tiempo decisiva e incierta. La crisis económica actual está haciendo que la opinión pública en los Balcanes occidentales pierda confianza en que la paz y el crecimiento económico siguen estando a su alcance, lo que crea el riesgo de una posible desaceleración del proceso de integración.

En conjunto, la región ha logrado avances notables. Ahora hay gobiernos proeuropeos en todos los Balcanes. Las recientes elecciones en Bosnia muestran que el electorado sigue orientado étnicamente. Nuestra tarea –con el apoyo de los nuevos dirigentes bosnios– es la de reorientar esa actitud hacia una mentalidad europea auténtica. Las reformas democráticas están demostrando ser una cura cada vez más eficaz para la inestabilidad creada en el pasado por el nacionalismo y las tensiones étnicas. La cuestión decisiva es la de velar por que los Balcanes occidentales sigan centrados en el programa europeo, lo que significa que la UE debe brindar orientación y estímulo mediante iniciativas tangibles.

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