坏社会

伦敦—多大程度的不平等是可接受的?从衰退前标准看,相当大,美国和英国尤其如此。新工党(New Labour)的彼得·曼德尔逊(Peter Mandelson)说他对“不义”而富之人完全没有“不忿”,以此描述了过去30年的精神。致富是“新经济”全部意义之所在。新兴富豪所能保留的财富越来越多,因为为了鼓励他们变得更富,税收被大幅削减了,而更公平的切蛋糕规则却被抛弃了。

结果是可以预料的。1970年,美国顶级CEO税前薪酬大约是普通员工的30倍;如今是263倍。在英国,1970年顶级CEO基本工资(不含奖金)是普通员工的47倍,2010年为81倍多。20世纪70年代末以来,美国最富有的20%人群的税后收入增速是比最贫穷的20%人群的5倍,英国则是4倍。更重要的是,普通(平均)收入和中位收入之间的差距在扩大。也就是说,收入不超过平均收入一半的美国人和英国人比重一直在增加。

尽管一些国家阻止了不平等性增加的趋势,但从过去三四十年来的世界总体情况看,不平等性一直在增加。各国国内的不平等性在增加,国与国之间的不平等性则在1980年之后显著增加,但在20世纪90年代末开始趋缓,并最终在2000之后开始下降,原因在于发展中国家的赶超增长开始发力。

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