Dean Rohrer

L’inquieta gioventù araba

NEW YORK – Dietro le recenti agitazioni, ancora in corso, in Medio Oriente ci sono una serie di fattori: decenni di governi corrotti e autoritari, società sempre più erudite e digitali e prezzi alle stelle dei prodotti alimentari. Come se non bastasse, in tutto il Medio Oriente (come nell’Africa sub-sahariana e gran parte dell’Asia) la rapida crescita della popolazione sta aumentando la pressione demografica.

La popolazione egiziana, ad esempio, è raddoppiata durante il governo di Hosni Mubarak passando da 42 milioni nel 1980 ad 85 milioni nel 2010. Questa crescita è ancor più degna di nota se si pensa che l’Egitto è un paese desertico e che i suoi abitanti sono di conseguenza concentrati sulle coste del Nilo. In mancanza di uno spazio per espandersi, la densità della popolazione sta raggiungendo livelli incontenibili, La città del Cairo è diventata una regione         tentacolare con 20 milioni di abitanti che vivono gomito a gomito con infrastrutture inadeguate.

Una crescita rapida della popolazione implica un’elevata percentuale di giovani, ed infatti la metà della popolazione egiziana è al di sotto dei 25 anni. L’Egitto, come dozzine di altri paesi in tutto il mondo, si trova ad affrontare la sfida estrema, e in gran parte insoddisfatta, di assicurare a questi giovani dei posti di lavoro produttivi e proficui.

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