Le Printemps arabe et le tour de l’Europe

NEW HAVEN – Jusqu’à présent, et à quelques rares exceptions près, l’Occident a produit deux communautés très distinctes de spécialistes en politique étrangère : la communauté du développement et la communauté démocratique. Le plus souvent, elles n’ont eu que très peu ou pas de rapports entre elles : les spécialistes du développement traitaient confortablement tant avec les dictatures qu’avec les démocraties, croyant que la meilleure façon de créer la prospérité était de se concentrer exclusivement sur les questions et les institutions économiques.

Les conséquences de cette approche ont une résonnance particulière aujourd’hui dans le monde arabe. Mais, comme l’ont démontré les récents débats autour du Printemps arabe au Conseil de sécurité des Nations Unies, ce ne sont pas les principaux pays émergeants qui influeront sur les évènements dans la région. Le Brésil ne s’est pratiquement pas exprimé en réaction au tumulte de la région tandis que la Russie et la Chine ont peu apprécié les sanctions imposées à la Libye compte tenu de la nature autocratique de leur propre régime.

Tout ceci se résume en une unique opportunité pour l’Union Européenne de soutenir la transition du soulèvement révolutionnaire vers un gouvernement démocratique chez ses voisins. Dans le même temps, il nous faut promouvoir le progrès d’autres régimes dans la région vers une démocratie inclusive. Car l’Union Européenne est leur partenaire naturel dans cette entreprise.

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