Эпоха судей

Александр Гамильтон, известный автор многих Документов Федералиста , которые излагают логическое обоснование для принятия Конституции Соединенных Штатов, не сомневался насчет относительного влияния трех великих властей государства. В Федералисте Номер 78 он писал, что исполнитель обладает "властью меча", т.е. инструмента законного насилия. Законодательная власть располагает "властью кошелька" и, таким образом, устанавливает все правила. Но судебная власть "не имеет никакого влияния ни над мечом, ни над кошельком", у нее нет "ни Силы, ни Воли, а просто суждение", что делает ее "вне сравнения самым слабым из этих трех отделов власти".

Гамильтон продолжал приводить доводы в защиту независимости судей для того, чтобы укрепить их положение, и этот спор остается неопровержимым. После этого, однако, наблюдатель современной политики едва ли признает картину, нарисованную великим конституционным теоретиком Америки.

Для американского Президента назначение судей Верховного Суда является вопросом огромной важности потому, что Суд обладает властью определять направление политики в важных вопросах, например, в вопросе расового равенства. В Германии меньшинства, побежденные в парламенте, идут с многими спорными политическими вопросами в Конституционный Суд.

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