L'Ère des juges

Alexander Hamilton, l'auteur célèbre de nombreux articles pour les Federalist Papers qui formula la logique qui fonde l'adoption de la Constitution américaine, ne doutait pas de l'importance relative de chacun des trois grands pouvoirs de l'État. Dans le Federalist n° 78, il écrivait que l'exécutif commande « le pouvoir de l'épée », représentant ainsi l'instrument de violence légitime. Le législatif commande « le pouvoir de la bourse » et ainsi établit toutes les règles alors que le judiciaire « n'a aucune influence sur l'épée ou la bourse », pas plus qu'il n'a « la force ou la volonté, ne bénéficiant que du jugement », ce qui le rend, « au-delà de toute comparaison possible, le plus faible des trois pouvoirs. »

Hamilton poursuivit en faisant la preuve de la nécessité de préserver l'indépendance des juges pour renforcer leur position et ainsi leur permettre de rester inattaquables. Par-delà, cependant, l'observateur de la vie politique contemporaine pourra difficilement reconnaître l'état des lieux dressé par le grand théoricien de la constitution américaine.

Pour le président américain, la nomination des juges de la Cour suprême est d'une importance capitale puisque la Cour suprême a le pouvoir de déterminer le cours des choses dans d'importantes situations, comme les questions d'égalité raciale. En Allemagne, bon nombre de questions politiques portant à controverse sont présentées à la Cour constitutionnelle par les minorités défaites au Parlement.

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