إمبراطورية بالصدفة

نيويورك ــ لقد بات من الواضح الآن أن السبب الرئيسي وراء أزمة اليورو يتلخص في تخلي الدول الأعضاء عن حقها في طباعة المال لصالح البنك المركزي الأوروبي. ومن المؤكد أن هذه الدول لم تدرك العواقب المترتبة على تخليها عن ذلك الحق ــ ولم تدركها السلطات الأوروبية.

عندما بدأ العمل باليورو، سمحت الأجهزة التنظيمية للبنوك بشراء كميات غير محدودة من السندات الحكومية من دون أن تضع جانباً أي أرصدة رأسمالية، وحدد البنك المركزي الأوروبي أسعار الفائدة على كل السندات الحكومية في منطقة اليورو على أسس متساوية. وقد وجدت البنوك التجارية فرصة مواتية في تكديس كميات كبيرة من سندات الدول الأكثر ضعفاً طمعاً في الفوز ببضعة نقاط أساسية إضافية، الأمر الذي أدى إلى تقارب أسعار الفائدة في مختلف بلدان منطقة اليورو. والواقع أن ألمانيا، التي كانت تناضل لمواجهة أعباء إعادة توحيد شطريها، تعهدت إصلاحات بنيوية وأصبحت أكثر قدرة على المنافسة. وتمتعت دول أخرى بازدهار الإسكان والاستهلاك على خلفية من الائتمان الرخيص، الأمر الذي جعلها أقل قدرة على المنافسة.

ثم جاء انهيار عام 2008. فاضطرت الحكومات إلى إنقاذ بنوكها. حتى أن بعضها وجدت نفسها في موقف أشبه بموقف دولة نامية أصبحت مثقلة بالديون بعملة لا تتحكم فيها. وفي ضوء تباعد واختلاف الأداء الاقتصادي بين دول المنطقة، أصبحت أوروبا مقسمة إلى دول دائنة ودول مدينة.

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