La mundialización de la justicia

PARÍS – Cuando, hace veinte años, el Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas creó el Tribunal Penal Internacional para la Antigua Yugoslavia (TPIY) el 25 de mayo de 1993, muchos lo consideraron un gesto sin sentido. En aquel momento, ya hacía más de un año que había estallado la guerra de Bosnia, la ciudad de Sarajevo estaba sitiada, habían muerto ya decenas de miles de civiles no combatientes y centenares de miles habían sido desplazados por la fuerza.

Los servobosnios –y quienes los apoyaban en Servia– parecían estar ganando la guerra, mientras que las NN.UU. no adoptaron disposiciones para detener a los acusados de ordenar o ejecutar atrocidades. De hecho, algunos consideran la creación del TPIY como un substituto deficiente de la intervención militar necesaria para detener la matanza.

Durante mucho tiempo, esa reacción cínica pareció justificada. El TPIY tardó en ponerse en marcha. Las NN.UU. tardaron catorce meses en nombrar a un fiscal jefe. Transcurrió otro año antes de que su oficina emitiera actas de acusación contra altos cargos responsables de crímenes graves. En aquel momento, ya se había producido la matanza de unos 8.000 hombres y muchachos musulmanes en Srebrenica, la mayor matanza en masa habida en Europa desde la segunda guerra mundial.

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