A globalização da justiça

PARIS – Quando o Tribunal Penal Internacional para a antiga Jugoslávia (TPIJ) foi criado pelo Conselho de Segurança das Nações Unidas, há 20 anos, no dia 25 de Maio de 1993, muitos consideraram-no como um gesto sem sentido. Na época, a guerra na Bósnia já tinha estalado há mais de um ano; a cidade de Sarajevo estava cercada; dezenas de milhares de civis não combatentes já tinham morrido; e centenas de milhares foram deslocados à força.

Os sérvios da Bósnia - e os seus apoiantes na Sérvia - pareciam estar a ganhar a guerra, enquanto a ONU não tomava providências para deter os responsáveis pela ordenação ou realização das atrocidades. Na verdade, alguns testemunharam a criação do TPIJ como sendo um substituto pobre da intervenção militar que era necessária para deter a matança.

Durante muito tempo, essa resposta cínica pareceu ser justificada. O TPIJ demorou a dar os primeiros passos. A ONU demorou 14 meses para nomear um procurador-chefe. Outro ano passou antes de o seu gabinete emitir acusações contra figuras com altos cargos responsáveis por crimes graves. Nessa altura, o massacre de cerca de oito mil muçulmanos, homens e rapazes, em Srebrenica, a maior chacina em massa que teve lugar na Europa desde a Segunda Guerra Mundial, já tinha ocorrido.

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