Die Globalisierung der Gerechtigkeit

PARIS – Als vor zwanzig Jahren, am 25. Mai 1993, der Sicherheitsrat der Vereinten Nationen den Internationalen Strafgerichtshof für das ehemalige Jugoslawien (ICTY) ins Leben rief, wurde dies von vielen als bedeutungslose Geste angesehen. Zu dieser Zeit war der Krieg in Bosnien bereits über ein Jahr alt, die Stadt Sarajevo wurde belagert, Zehntausende Zivilisten waren bereits umgekommen und Hunderttausende zwangsumgesiedelt worden.

Die bosnischen Serben – und ihre Unterstützer in Serbien – schienen den Krieg zu gewinnen, während die UN keine Anstalten machten, diejenigen, die des Befehlens oder Ausführens von Massenmorden angeklagt waren, zur Verantwortung zu ziehen. Tatsächlich betrachteten manche die Gründung des ICTY als armseligen Ersatz für die Militärintervention, die zum Beenden des Schlachtens nötig schien.

Lange Zeit schien diese zynische Sicht gerechtfertigt. Der ICTY kam nur langsam in Gang. Die UN benötigten 14 Monate, um einen Chefankläger zu ernennen. Bis sein Büro Haftbefehle gegen die hochrangigen Akteure erließ, die für die großen Verbrechen verantwortlich waren, verging ein weiteres Jahr. In der Zwischenzeit wurden in Srebrenica beim größten Massenmord in Europa seit dem zweiten Weltkrieg 8.000 muslimische Männer und Jungen umgebracht.

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