La « bonne » croissance pour l’Afrique

L’Afrique possède le plus haut niveau de pauvreté au monde et est l’une des deux régions où la pauvreté n’a pas décliné au cours des vingt dernières années. Comme le montre le rapport de la Commission économique pour l’Afrique des Nations unies, qui sera bientôt publié sous le titre Economic Report on Africa 2005 (Rapport économique sur l’Afrique 2005), la proportion des pauvres, vivant avec moins d’un dollar par jour, a diminué de moitié entre 1980 et 2003 au niveau mondial, passant de 40 à 20 %. En Afrique cependant, la part des pauvres a légèrement augmenté, passant de 45 à 46 %. Le taux de pauvreté en Afrique en 2003 dépasse celui de la seconde région la plus pauvre, l’Asie du Sud, de 17 %.

En reconnaissant la relation entre la croissance économique et la réduction de la pauvreté, ceux qui ont préparé pour les Nations unies les objectifs de développement du Millenium (ODM) estimaient que réduire de moitié la pauvreté en Afrique pour 2015 requérait que les pays parviennent à une croissance annuelle minimum moyenne de 7 %. Reste à savoir si les pays africains pourront atteindre cet objectif de croissance.

Depuis le milieu des années 1990, les économies africaines ont enregistré des taux de croissance plus élevés Selon la Banque mondiale, le taux de croissance moyen en Afrique pour la période de 1996 à 2002 représentait environ 3,6 %, par rapport à la moyenne mondiale de 2,7 %. En 2004, la croissance en Afrique atteint en moyenne 5,1 %, soit le taux plus élevé en huit ans. Les taux de croissance cette année et en 2006 sont projetés à 4,7 % et 5,2 % respectivement.

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