Le « défi » de la Turquie

Samuel Huntington nous a alerté sur le danger existant. Dans sa thèse désormais célèbre sur Le choc des civilisations, il a cité la Turquie comme un exemple de « pays déchiré », divisé intérieurement, selon lui, entre l'Orient et l'Occident, un pays qui ne se trouve ni en Europe ni au Moyen-Orient, avec une ligne de faille civilisationnelle traversant tout le pays plutôt que courant uniquement le long de sa frontière.

Les récents bombardements qui ont ravagé Istanbul ont souligné, une fois encore, l'importance pour la Turquie de surmonter la ligne de faille de Huntington afin d'apparaître avec fermeté comme une démocratie prospère, laïque et stable. Si la Turquie réussit dans cette tâche, elle démontrera qu'il n'y a rien d'inévitable dans un 21e siècle devenant le siècle du « choc des civilisations », au cours duquel les divisions de la Guerre froide seraient remplacées par de nouveaux antagonismes religieux qui nous ramèneraient à une époque moyenâgeuse. Le concept même de frontières doit être repensé dans le monde d'aujourd'hui : les frontières qui existent dans l'esprit et sur Internet sont aussi importantes que celles qui divisent l'espace géographique.

La réussite de la Turquie dans sa transformation en une démocratie moderne dépend bien évidemment de plusieurs facteurs, pour la majorité internes à la Turquie et liés au leadership national et aux décisions que prendront les acteurs politiques et économiques en Turquie. Mais les terroristes qui ont frappé de manière aussi meurtrière le pays comprennent la nature mondiale, et non simplement régionale, de la lutte pour l'âme de la Turquie.

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