Thatcherová a Velký třesk

LONDÝN – Ve Spojených státech byla Margaret Thatcherová pro lidi určitého věku superstar a ostře protichůdné názory zaznívající v Británii během 11 let její vlády Američany udivovaly. Brity ale v úžas neuváděly. Thatcherová, podobně jako Tony Blair, je už dlouho britským tovarem, který budí zájem spíš na exportních trzích než doma.

Soustředěně zpochybňovány jsou všechny aspekty jejího odkazu. Předvídala jasnozřivě problémy evropské měnové unie, anebo vytlačila Británii do izolace na okraji kontinentu? Uvolnila novou hospodářskou dynamiku, anebo je Spojené království jejím přičiněním trpce rozštěpené a oproti dřívějšku nerovnější a nesoudržnější? Rozprášila moc skrytých zájmových skupin a vytvořila opravdovou meritokracii, anebo etablovala bankéře a finančníky jako novou elitu, což mělo katastrofální důsledky?

Jednou věcí, která se teď dostala pod mikroskop, jsou reformy londýnské City, jež Thatcherová uskutečnila koncem 80. let. V roce 1986 její vláda napomohla tomu, co je obecně známo jako „Velký třesk“. Po technické stránce bylo hlavní změnou ukončení „jediné způsobilosti“, podle níž mohl být obchodník na burze buď klientem, nebo zprostředkovatelem, ale ne obojím.

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