撒切尔和“大爆炸”

伦敦—在美国,对某个年龄层的人来说,玛格丽特·撒切尔是一颗超级巨星,美国人感到诧异的是,她执政了11年的英国对她的评价分歧如此之大。和托尼·布莱尔一样,撒切尔一直是英国造产品——在出口市场远比国内受欢迎。

她身后的一切都引发了激烈的争论。她是对欧洲货币联盟的问题有着先见之明,还是让英国孤立于大陆边缘之外?她是创造了新的经济动态,还是让英国陷入了苦涩的两极分化、不平等性加剧、凝聚力日薄西山?她是摧毁了既得利益并创造了真正的精英治国制度,还是巩固了银行家和金融家的新精英地位,导致了日后的灾难性后果?

事实上,一个被放在了显微镜下的问题是撒切尔在20世纪80年代末对伦敦金融城的改革。1986年,撒切尔政府推行了日后俗称“大爆炸”的改革。从技术上讲,主要变化是结束了“单一资格”——即股票交易者只能作为委托人或代理人之一,而不能兼而任之。

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