Terrorismus und Antiterrorkampf neu überdacht

Die Verhaftung von 21 Terroristen in London, die offenbar die Sprengung mehrerer Flugzeuge über dem Atlantik planten, erinnert uns – wenn es dazu überhaupt einer Erinnerung bedarf – an die Terroranschläge in New York und Washington vom 11. September 2001. 9/11 wurde zum Synonym für den modernen Terrorismus mit all seinen schrecklichen Möglichkeiten, Tod und Zerstörung herbeizuführen. Fünf Jahre mögen für Historiker vielleicht zu kurz sein, um die Bedeutung dieses Ereignisses einzuschätzen, aber sie bieten Gelegenheit für eine Bestandsaufnahme.

Die Ergebnisse sind bestenfalls uneinheitlich. Nach dem 11. September kam es in Indonesien, Madrid, London, Ägypten und jüngst in Mumbai zu Terroranschlägen. Tausende unschuldiger Männer, Frauen und Kinder wurden getötet. Auch im Irak steht terroristische Gewalt auf der Tagesordnung – eine Gewalt, die das Land an den Rand eines ausgewachsenen Bürgerkrieges bringen könnte.

Dennoch gab es keinen Terroranschlag mehr, der im Ausmaß mit dem 11. September vergleichbar wäre. Über die Gründe dafür lohnt es sich nachzudenken. Der Sturz der Regierung in Afghanistan und die Beseitigung des sicheren Zufluchtsorts für die Al-Kaida in diesem Land könnten damit zu tun haben. Intensivierte und besser koordinierte Geheimdienstarbeit, verschärfte Gesetzesvollstreckung sowie Sicherheitsmaßnahmen auf US-amerikanischer und internationaler Ebene haben den Terroristen das Leben erschwert. Die jüngsten Verhaftungen in London legen auch die Vermutung nahe, dass der Wunsch einiger Terroristen, die Anschläge vom 11. September noch zu übertreffen, sie möglicherweise in ihrer Fähigkeit einschränkt, ihre Pläne in die Tat umzusetzen und das Risiko ihrer Entlarvung erhöhen.

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