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无需征税的机器人化?

发自纽黑文——去年五月,由欧洲议会法律事务委员会成员,欧洲议会议员玛蒂·德尔沃(Mady Delvaux)编写的一份欧洲议会报告草案提出了向机器人征税的想法。报告强调机器人如何促进了不平等现象,并以此提出或许需要“为了税收和社会保障缴款的目的,让企业就机器人和人工智能对自身经济表现的贡献程度和比例进行申报“。

除了对此表示赞成比尔·盖茨之外,公众对德尔沃的提议是一面倒的反对。但我们不应将这个想法置诸脑后。在过去一年中,我们看到了Google Home和Amazon Echo Dot(Alexa)这类某种家务劳动取代型设备的激增。同样,Delphi和nuTonomy公司在新加坡落地的无人驾驶出租车服务已经开始取代出租车司机的位置。而使用Starship Technologies微型自动驾驶车辆的Doordash外卖送餐服务公司也在取代送餐小哥。

由于人们在失业时——通常是失去那些他们密切认同,可能花了数年时间来准备的职位——会产生种种个人问题,一旦这些和其他人类劳动替代性创新取得成功的话,要求向其征税的呼声必然会日益频繁。乐观主义者指出,被技术所取代的人们总会找到新的工作;但随着机器人革命的加速,人们日益质疑这种新工作是否存在。对机器人征税的倡导者希望此举能会减缓这个过程,至少暂时性的,并提供收入来资助人们的职业转型,例如对下岗工人进行再培训。

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