tablet technology Kohei Hara/Getty Images

El próximo debate sobre políticas tecnológicas

STANFORD – ¿Qué tienen en común las filtraciones de correos electrónicos poco favorecedores desde los servidores pirateados del Comité Nacional Demócrata durante la campaña presidencial del año 2016 en Estados Unidos y la ensordecedora sirena de alarma que resonó durante una hora en Dallas, Texas? Lo que tienen en común es lo mismo que vincula la amenaza nuclear de Corea del Norte con los ataques terroristas en Europa y Estados Unidos: todos estos eventos representan desventajas de distintas tecnologías que, a su vez, son extremadamente beneficiosas – estas desventajas son riesgos que exigen, cada vez con mayor intensidad, respuestas en la forma de políticas sólidas.

La disputa creciente sobre la tecnología se ejemplifica en los debates acerca de la llamada neutralidad de la red y la disputa entre Apple y el FBI sobre el desbloqueo de los iPhones de presuntos terroristas. Esto no es de extrañar: a medida que la tecnología acarrea más consecuencias – que afectan a todo lo que nos rodea, desde nuestra seguridad (armas nucleares y ciberguerra) hasta nuestros trabajos (alteraciones en el mercado de trabajo causadas por la robótica y el software avanzado) – el impacto de dicha tecnología ha sido bueno, malo y potencialmente feo.

En primer lugar, el impacto bueno. La tecnología eliminó enfermedades como la viruela y está muy cerca de erradicar otras, como la polio; facilitó la exploración espacial; aceleró el transporte; y, abrió nuevos horizontes de oportunidades para las finanzas, el entretenimiento y mucho más. La telefonía celular, por sí sola, libró a la gran mayoría de la población mundial de experimentar restricciones de comunicación.

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