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Les réseaux sociaux et les inégalités

MILAN – Il a fallu énormément de temps pour que l'augmentation des inégalités ait des incidences politiques, mais il y a eu une prise de conscience brutale au cours de ces dernières années. C'est devenu une question centrale, un peu partout les gouvernements devront modifier substantiellement leurs priorités économiques pour parvenir à des sociétés plus équitables et plus inclusives. S'ils n'agissent pas en ce sens, les peuples pourraient se tourner vers des alternatives brutales telles que les mouvements populistes qui montent en puissance dans nombre de pays.

Les hommes politiques parlent souvent de modèles de croissance qui conduisent à une distribution inégalitaire des bénéfices de la croissance, mais une fois au pouvoir ils ne font pas grand chose à ce sujet. Ces modèles conduisent souvent à une certaine hostilité à l'égard des experts, à une désillusion en ce qui concerne le système politique et les valeurs communes, ainsi qu'à une fragmentation sociale et à une polarisation accrues.

Reconnaître l'importance d'une inégale répartition des bénéfices économiques n'a rien de neuf. Dans les pays en développement, l'exclusion économique et les inégalités extrêmes ont toujours freiné la croissance à long terme. De ce fait, il est difficile de mettre en œuvre des mesures favorables à la croissance, car cela finit par entraîner le chaos politique et social, voire des violences.

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