Paul Lachine

Tecnología y desigualdad

CAMBRIDGE – Hasta ahora, el implacable avance de la tecnología y la globalización ha favorecido enormemente la mano de obra altamente calificada, lo que ha ayudado a generar niveles sin precedentes de desigualdad en el ingreso y la riqueza en todo el mundo. ¿Será que a final de cuentas se renueve la lucha de clases en la que los gobiernos populistas lleguen al poder y se lleve al límite la redistribución del ingreso, y el Estado retome el control de la vida económica?

No hay duda de que la desigualdad en el ingreso es lo que más amenaza a la estabilidad social en todo el mundo, ya sea en los Estados Unidos, la periferia europea o en China. Con todo, es fácil olvidar que las fuerzas del mercado, si se les permite actuar libremente, a la larga podrían ejercer un papel estabilizador. En pocas palabras, cuanto mayor sea la prima para los trabajadores altamente calificados, más grande será el incentivo para encontrar la forma de economizar en el empleo de sus talentos.

El mundo del ajedrez, con el cual estoy muy familiarizado, ilustra claramente la manera en que la innovación puede tener un efecto muy diferente en los salarios relativos en las siguientes décadas de lo que lo tuvo en las últimas tres décadas.

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