Paul Lachine

التكنولوجيا وعدم المساواة

كمبريدج ـ حتى يومنا هذا، لعبت المسيرة العنيدة للتكنولوجيا والعولمة دوراً هائلاً لصالح العمالة ذات المهارة العالية، وساعدت في تغذية مستويات غير مسبوقة من التفاوت في الدخول والثروات في مختلف أنحاء العالم. تُرى هل تنتهي بنا الحال إلى حرب طبقية متجددة، مع صعود الحكومات الشعبوية إلى السلطة، وتوسيعها لحدود إعادة توزيع الدخول، وتأكيدها على قدر أعظم من سيطرة الدولة على الحياة الاقتصادية؟

لا شك أن التفاوت في الدخول يشكل التهديد الأعظم للاستقرار الاجتماعي في مختلف أنحاء العالم، سواء كان ذلك في الولايات المتحدة، أو البلدان الواقعة على المحيط الخارجي لأوروبا، أو الصين. ولكن يبدو أنه من السهل علينا أن ننسى أن قوى السوق، إذا سُمِح لها بالقدر الكافي من الحرية، قد تلعب في النهاية دوراً معززاً للاستقرار. الأمر ببساطة أنه كلما كانت مكافأة العمال من ذوي المهارة العالية أكبر، كلما كان الحافز إلى البحث عن سبل للاقتصاد في استخدام مواهبهم أعظم.

إن عالم الشطرنج، الذي تربطني به ألفة وثيقة، يوضح بجلاء صارخ الكيفية التي قد تجعل الإبداع في العقود المقبلة يؤثر على الأجور النسبية بشكل مختلف تمام الاختلاف عما كانت الحال عليه على مدى العقود الثلاثة الماضية.

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